Phthalates, called “plasticizers,” are a group of industrial chemicals used to make plastics like polyvinyl chloride (PVC) more flexible or resilient and also as solvents. Phthalates are nearly ubiquitous in modern society, found in, among other things, toys, food packaging, hoses, raincoats, shower curtains, vinyl flooring, wall coverings, lubricants, adhesives, detergents, nail polish, hair spray and shampoo.
Bisphenol a (BPA), a synthetic estrogen used to harden polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resin, is the focus of a growing number of research studies and legislative actions, reflecting mounting scientific evidence that it causes serious and sometimes irreversible damage to health, even at the low doses to which people are routinely exposed. An estimated 6 billion pounds of BPA are produced globally annually, generating about $6 billion in sales. It is fabricated into thousands of products made of hard, clear polycarbonate plastics and tough epoxy resins, including safety equipment, eyeglasses, computer and cell phone casings, water and beverage bottles and epoxy paint and coatings. But BPA-based plastics break down readily, particularly when heated or washed with strong detergent.
PBDEs are chemicals used as fire retardants in foam furniture and the plastic of TVs and computer monitors. They accumulate in people and wildlife and disrupt brain development and hormone systems. 2 forms of PBDEs have been pulled from the US market after EWG and others revealed high levels in the blood, milk and body tissues of Americans, but a 3rd type is still used in electronics.
Ammonium perchlorate is the oxidant in solid rocket fuel. Ignited with aluminum powder, it burns at up to 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit, hurling the space shuttle out of the atmosphere and propelling ballistic missiles across continents. A combination of nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine and oxygen, ammonium perchlorate is an essential component of military explosives, bottle rockets, fireworks, highway flares, automobile airbags and old-fashioned black powder.
Ammonium perchlorate and other perchlorate compounds are also widespread contaminants of drinking water and some foods such as milk and vegetables.
Scientific research has established that perchlorate in significant amounts disrupts production of thyroid hormones, and adequate thyroid hormones are crucial to normal brain development and growth in the fetus, infants and young children.
Used to make Teflon pan coatings; breakdown product of stain- and grease-proof coatings. Likely human carcinogen. Found in most people. Being phased out of some products.
|最終更新日 ( 2011/08/17 Wednesday 11:57:21 MDT )|